Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:3141228 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31404413141235795sulfite reductase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314122831422381011sulfite reductase subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31422523143019768formatenitrite family of transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31431133143805693transcriptional regulator CrpFnr familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31438683144821954periplasmic molybdate-binding proteindomainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31450863145907822molybdate ABC transporter periplasmic molybdate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31459303146613684molybdate ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314661531476641050ATP-binding protein of ABC transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314795731493481392glutamate synthase NADPH homotetramericQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31493483150235888conserved electron-transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31505363151006471SsrA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315118231534222241ribonuclease RQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315364631556732028V-type H-translocating pyrophosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31561443156377234preprotein translocase SecG subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31564253156559135hypothetical protein
315666731579621296phosphopyruvate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315825931596561398transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31597373160321585hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31605813162119153923-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31623143163219906N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate etheraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
316352531649461422phosphotransferase system domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP