Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:311378 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
311378311575198hypothetical protein
311631311759129hypothetical protein
311775312095321putative erythrocyte membrane protein 1QuickGO ontology
312361312720360hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3128533139141062internalin-AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314197314610414hypothetical proteinBLASTP
314985315494510acetolactate synthase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31566831692712603-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3169423174274863-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31759931868110833-isopropylmalate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3186883203461659dihydroxy-acid dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3204333221061674acetolactate synthase large subunit biosynthetic typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3221283231441017ketol-acid reductoisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
323994324251258GIY-YIG domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
324295325293999transcriptional regulator LacI familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3256043272681665glycosyl hydrolase family 13QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3273303289881659pts system iibc componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
328993329781789endonucleaseexonucleasephosphatase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
329823330314492MarR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP