Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:3049500 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30496173050162546hypothetical proteinBLASTP
305039030514421053HD-GYP hydrolase domain containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30516183052508891hypothetical proteinBLASTP
30526683052820153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
30531143053959846DegV family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30540923054802711purine nucleoside phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30548493055256408cytidine deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30554623056415954ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
305641730575711155ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
305756830590911524galactosemethyl galactoside import ATP-binding protein MglAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
305933830604411104membrane lipoprotein tmpcQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
306061530616341020transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
306222230633911170aspartate aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30633883063867480transcriptional regulator AsnC familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
306460330665611959pullulanase type IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30669223067035114hypothetical proteinBLASTP
306706230685581497sodiumproline symporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30687953069082288hypothetical proteinBLASTP
306927830706931416argininelysine decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP