Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:2856997 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
285699728580041008phage integraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28581162858304189hypothetical proteinBLASTP
285833428593561023putative aminotransferase class VQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28594262859620195hypothetical protein
28596612860212552hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28602542860697444gp91QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28607142861439726hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28614982861920423single-strand binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28619132862206294hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28623142862934621phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28629382863171234hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28631842863636453hypothetical protein
28636572863956300hypothetical protein
28639652864273309hypothetical protein
28642702864548279putative glucose-1-phosphataseQuickGO ontology
28645292865350822replication initiation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28653632866073711metallo-beta-lactamase domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28660732866816744hypothetical proteinBLASTP
286681628687861971hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28688832869041159hypothetical protein
28690542869236183hypothetical protein
28692472869360114hypothetical protein
28693532869541189hypothetical protein
28695512869712162hypothetical protein
28698842870030147hypothetical protein
28701432870355213DNA binding domain excisionase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28703562871099744antirepressor phage associatedQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28712462871464219hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28716292872012384putative phage repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28721812872663483conserved phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
287271028739061197prophage LambdaBa04 site-specific recombinase phage integrase familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
287405228750531002hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28750792875768690hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2876008287609689tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontology
28766422877412771hypothetical protein
287774028792481509ATP-dependent Zn proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP