Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:2435241 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
243524124376792439ATP-dependent DNA helicase RecQQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24379262438723798lysozyme M1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24387812439047267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24391092439360252phage holinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24395792439746168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
244007424410811008YkwD proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
244146624449813516pyruvateferredoxin flavodoxin oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
244535324464831131glycerate kinase 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
244653424477901257GntP family permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
244795624490201065putative carbohydrate diacid regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24493762449966591putative lipoproteinQuickGO ontology
24503502450505156hypothetical proteinBLASTP
245071824519951278pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24519922452981990electron transfer subunit proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24533082454081774hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24543332455202870D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24553862455952567hypothetical protein
24559422456424483sporulation protein YtfJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24566002457193594segregation and condensation protein BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24571772457932756ScpAB proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
245817424593641191penicillin-binding protein DacFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP