Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:2011403 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20114032011840438hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20119882012668681hypothetical protein
20126722012842171hypothetical protein
20128992013588690hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20140592014946888hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20150882015612525hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20156372015786150hypothetical protein
20157902016101312hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20161912016391201hypothetical protein
20164012016808408single-strand binding protein familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20168012017292492hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20173372018050714hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20181192018265147hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20183702018558189hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20185882018863276hypothetical protein
20188932019042150hypothetical protein
20190432019792750hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20198012020706906hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20207202021373654putative phage essential recombination function proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20213862021577192hypothetical protein
20215802022500921hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20224902022654165hypothetical protein
20227982023052255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20231242023681558hypothetical protein
20236702024026357hypothetical protein
20240982024877780hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20249902025274285hypothetical protein
20253082025511204hypothetical protein
20257382026094357transcriptional regulator MerR familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
202622920273051077site-specific recombinase phage integrase familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20279192028557639hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20289612029179219putative transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontology
20296202029994375hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20302452030979735hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20311702031763594phage lipoproteinQuickGO ontology