Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:1822963 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18229631823196234hypothetical proteinBLASTP
182364018250191380sodiumdicarboxylate symporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18254051825710306hypothetical proteinBLASTP
182626718274301164alcohol dehydrogenase iron-containingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18277841828602819propanediol utilization protein PduBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18286661829166501putative propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18291821829460279propanediol utilization protein PduAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18295651829843279propanediol utilization protein PduAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18298691830525657propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18305281831349822ethanolamine utilization protein EutJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18313601832208849putative phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18322181832490273ethanolamine utilization protein EutNQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
183250918340021494ethanolamine utilization protein EutEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
183402018353451326ethanolamine utilization Fe-S center protein eutQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18353701835918549ethanolamine utilization protein EutMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
183611918373181200dhha1 domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
18374571837981525hypothetical proteinBLASTP
18381941838352159hypothetical proteinBLASTP
18385211838922402hypothetical proteinBLASTP
18390161839288273hypothetical proteinBLASTP
18398321840539708regulatory protein VanRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
184052318427332211two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP