Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:1390473 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13904731390829357hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13909601391208249transposaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13914771391674198transposaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139188913935591671hypothetical protein
13941301394495366transposaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13950241395809786electron transfer flavoprotein beta-subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13958311396769939electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139704113985851545L-lactate permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139874014001761437oxidase FAD-bindingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
140035014014891140acyl-coa dehydrogenase short-chain specificQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14017291402235507ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
140261314048052193catalaseperoxidase HPIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14052191405956738hypothetical protein
140600214072941293pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
140731314085991287pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14088501409308459transcriptional regulator MarR familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
140941814111661749ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP