Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:1 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17515451371chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
180629061101DNA polymerase III beta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29453151207S4 domain protein YaaAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322343081086DNA replication and repair protein RecFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
43234583261hypothetical proteinBLASTP
461965261908DNA gyrase B subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
654990982550DNA gyrase A subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
961811122150516S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1135214261291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14321144371175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
144411451777tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
145211459878tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1467915182504hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1522315735513transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15749171401392FAD-dependent oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1715917395237hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17710189871278seryl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
192131930593tRNA-SerQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
193391943193tRNA-SerQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
197181981093tRNA-SerQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198441993693tRNA-SerQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2024420762519GCN5-related N-acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP