Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:564455 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
564455565315861beta-propeller domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
565479566372894NUDIX family hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
566506566988483hypothetical proteinBLASTP
567164567688525hypothetical proteinBLASTP
567690568280591methlytransferase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
568366568605240hypothetical proteinBLASTP
568626569108483hypothetical proteinBLASTP
5697255709541230nuclease SbcCD subunit DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5709295744593531exonuclease SbcCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
574494575042549NUDIX family hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
575871576722852hypothetical proteinBLASTP
577188577553366cadmium resistance transcriptional regulator CadCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5776295798572229cadmium-translocating P-type ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5811145824901377PhoH family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5827585837621005hypothetical proteinBLASTP
5837725847881017hypothetical proteinBLASTP