Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:490652 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4906524932522601clpB proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
493915494643729CobBCobQ family glutamine amidotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4947014960621362UDP-N-acetylmuramyl tripeptide synthetase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
496327497307981mannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4976574987721116lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
498880499734855UDP pyrophosphate phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
50178850186578tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
50178950186476tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5051125052281175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
50523750531175tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
505688506551864metallo-beta-lactamase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5066885074107231-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5081425095031362HMGL-related enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5096475115721926aconitate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
511608512606999isocitrateisopropylmalate family dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
512854513639786polar amino acid ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5141585159241767NaH antiporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
515951516166216hypothetical proteinBLASTP