Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:3839575 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
383957538409331359DNA repair protein RadAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
384105438434892436negative regulator of genetic competence MecBClpCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
384349138445341044ATPguanido phosphotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38445393845066528UVR domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38450893845553465transciptional repressor CtsRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38459493846179231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
384652538485972073elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3848784384885875tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
3848886384896075tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
384896938490851175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3854043385412078tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3854044385411976tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
385420738543231175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
385960938609851377UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38611303861333204hypothetical proteinBLASTP
386180938632001392glycyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
386352038650341515lysyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38650533865535483transcription elongation factor GreAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38656663866493828hypothetical proteinBLASTP
38665433867514972dihydrouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38675243868300777pantothenate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
386845538701281674formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
387033138721361806ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38722183872763546hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
387274738741531407tRNAIle-lysidine synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
387430238766892388stage II sporulation protein EQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3877019387709577tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3877315387740389tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3877435387751177tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3877516387759176tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3877596387768489tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38778263878230405hypothetical proteinBLASTP