Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:3790917 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3790917379135443850S ribosomal protein L13QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37914753792215741tRNA pseudouridine synthase AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37922153793018804cobalt ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37930153793881867cobalt transporter ATP-binding subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37938663794714849cobalt transporter ATP-binding subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3794805379514634250S ribosomal protein L17QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37951903796137948DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3796205379682562130S ribosomal protein S4QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3796860379725839930S ribosomal protein S11QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3797276379764737230S ribosomal protein S13QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3797760379787311450S ribosomal protein L36QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37978903798108219translation initiation factor IF-1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37981163798397282hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37984123799161750methionine aminopeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37991613799811651adenylate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
379983538011121278preprotein translocase subunit SecYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3801113380155344150S ribosomal protein L15QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3801573380175218050S ribosomal protein L30QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3801766380226349830S ribosomal protein S5QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3802281380264036050S ribosomal protein L18QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3802659380320154350S ribosomal protein L6QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3803225380362339930S ribosomal protein S8QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3803653380383818630S ribosomal protein S14QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3803855380439754350S ribosomal protein L5QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3804420380473731850S ribosomal protein L24QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3804761380512936950S ribosomal protein L14QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3805164380541825530S ribosomal protein S17QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3805440380565221350S ribosomal protein L29QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3805642380608544450S ribosomal protein L16QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3806103380677467230S ribosomal protein S3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3806792380712733650S ribosomal protein L22QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3807149380743328530S ribosomal protein S19QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3807503380833683450S ribosomal protein L2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3808391380868429450S ribosomal protein L23QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3808684380930462150S ribosomal protein L4QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3809329380995863050S ribosomal protein L3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3810048381035630930S ribosomal protein S10QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381074638119391194elongation factor TuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381197938140482070elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3814120381459047130S ribosomal protein S7QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3814751381512837830S ribosomal protein S12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38152043815446243ribosomal protein L7Ae family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381556838191043537DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP