Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:3753599 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375359937554251827glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37560913756768678transaldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37567873757434648haloacid dehalogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37574583758243786sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37582643758629366PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IIAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375884537598491005PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IIBCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37598623760407546PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IICQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37604503760845396glucitol operon activator proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376085937619081050L-iditol 2-dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37619433762914972glucitol operon regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376327037646191350phosphoglucosamine mutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3766035376710510712-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376712137673302102-oxoacidacceptor oxidoreductase subunit deltaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37674323768094663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
376835737694271071butyrate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37694563770367912phosphate butyryltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
377036037714541095butyrate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
377155537731531599oxidoreductase FAD-bindingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
377315537744351281hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37744053775253849hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37755083776041534cell wall hydrolase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP