Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:3581376 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358137635823801005D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35825723583567996D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358438135855591179hypothetical proteinBLASTP
358577535869711197electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphaFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35869893587783795electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358779635889291134acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358909635902201125R-phenyllactate dehydratase subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359022235914451224R-phenyllactate dehydratase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35914503592244795R-phenyllactate dehydratase activatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359224435934821239E-cinnamoyl-CoAR-phenyllactate CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359353735951681632AMP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359563435969561323branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359741535989471533GMP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359896036004141455inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36008553601604750PP-loop family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
360168336033081626chaperonin GroELQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36033383603625288co-chaperonin GroESQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36039413604585645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36045803605314735hypothetical proteinBLASTP
360576736072601494Fe hydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
360743336083509188-oxoguanine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
360850036098821383oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36098823610772891ferredoxin-NADP reductase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36110033611635633redox-sensing transcriptional repressor RexQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
361183536137571923drug resistance ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36140983614862765LytTr family DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
361486336164971635sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
361674036181581419carbon starvation protein CstAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP