Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:3429817 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34298173430554738hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34307073431609903N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34317493432165417toxin secretionphage lysis holinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34322623432384123hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34323773432772396hypothetical proteinBLASTP
343278634344501665phage structural proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34344573435380924hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34355283436397870phage tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
343641434418945481TP901 family phage tail tape measure proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34419483442076129hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34421633442450288hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34424863443067582phi13 family phage major tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34430673443414348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34434113443794384HK97 family phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34437873444113327phage head-tail adaptorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34440943444423330QlrG family phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34444403444595156hypothetical proteinBLASTP
344461534457421128phage capsid proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34457353446535801Clp proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
344657134477641194HK97 family phage portal proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
344778034494771698phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34494743449947474P27 family phage terminase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34502053450678474hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34506783450971294hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34510053451346342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34513843451659276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34518133452358546phage integrase family site specific recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34523603452593234hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34528023453188387hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34531783453345168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34533483453491144hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34535063453664159hypothetical proteinBLASTP
345375534548041050hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34548433454989147hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34550233455193171hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34552263455411186hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34554493455721273hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34557553455976222hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34560123456374363hypothetical protein
345640734574231017hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34574523457910459hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34579563458699744hypothetical proteinBLASTP