Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:33452 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33452350771626DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tauQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3514235483342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3551636112597recombination protein RecRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3616936432264hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3658236842261sigma-K factor processing regulatory protein BofAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3699337685693sugar fermentation stimulation protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3774138229489NUDIX family hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3834739069723hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3920339991789Fe-S-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4001040171162hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4055441258705ThiF domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41341424501110major facilitator superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4247943423945acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
48486486021175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
486094868476tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4888949485597uracil-DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
54940550561175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
550635513876tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5548156044564RNA polymerase factor sigma-70QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
56041574831443hypothetical proteinBLASTP
62804629201175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
629286300376tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
69743698591175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
698676994276tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7008370826744peptidil-prolyl isomerase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
75957760731175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7643077173744NAD-dependent deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7735978267909LD-carboxypeptidase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7830379244942CorA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP