Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:3217315 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
321731532185891275cell envelope-related function transcriptional attenuatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32186003219169570HDIG domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32192523219857606nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32201003220393294RNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322042032216941275GTPase ObgEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3222073322237530350S ribosomal protein L27QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32223783222704327hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3222707322302131550S ribosomal protein L21QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322314532245841440ribonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32247533225460708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
322544432272941851radical SAM domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32274073228258852metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32283133229098786M24M37 family peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322941832305361119rod shape-determining protein RodAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32306353230898264cell division topological specificity factor MinEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32309123231709798septum site-determining protein MinDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32317273232356630septum formation inhibitorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
323253132353052775penicillin-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32353253235816492rod shape-determining protein MreDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32358273236672846rod shape-determining protein MreCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
323667932376891011rod shape-determining protein MreBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32377183238404687DNA repair protein RadCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32384193239003585Maf-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32390193239276258hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32393863240087702hypothetical proteinBLASTP