Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2901497 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29014972902183687methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290219829033521155UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290338529044611077nucleotidyl transferase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29046532905000348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
290500029067991800hypothetical proteinBLASTP
29070412907862822flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29081342908475342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
290850229109402439flagellar hook-associated protein 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29109942911383390flagellar protein FliSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29114202911719300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
29117762912132357flagellar protein FlaGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29121482912366219carbon storage regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29123662912797432flagellar assembly protein FliWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29128652913827963flagellar hook-associated protein 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
291384529157101866flagellar hook-associated protein FlgKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29159872916391405flgN family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29163912916672282regulator of flagellin synthesis FlgMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
291726129184211161flagellar motor switch proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29184142919409996flagellar motor switch protein FliMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29194372919832396chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29199322920291360chemotaxis protein CheYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29203192920918600chemotaxis protein CheCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
292094429230192076chemotaxis protein CheAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29230322923802771chemotaxis protein methyltransferase CheRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
292381729248811065protein-glutamate methylesterase CheBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29249042925392489chemoreceptor glutamine deamidase CheDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29254092925855447chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
292587129279042034hypothetical proteinBLASTP