Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2875386 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28753862876303918NAD-dependent epimerasedehydratase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
287633228773991068neuB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
287743128790921662cytidyltransferase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
287910728802761170hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28803102881263954exopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28812902882060771exopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
288206028831601101UDP-galactopyranose mutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28832652883942678UDP-phosphate galactosephosphotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28841532884863711capsular exopolysaccharide family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28848822885655774exopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28856602886343684capsular polysaccharide biosynthsis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28863782887340963cell envelope-related function transcriptional attenuatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28877892887965177hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28880942888267174hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28883882888555168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28890402889888849methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28899652890783819flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28920752892575501hypothetical protein
28926002892725126hypothetical protein
28941902894441252hypothetical protein
289510528962021098aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28962792897271993polysaccharide biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28972972897935639hexapeptide repeat-containing transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28979542898619666N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP