Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2733529 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27335292734332804hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27343132735116804recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27358432735995153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
273621327378831671penicillin-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27379692738589621uridine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
273873727399631227U32 family peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27399562740612657O-methyltransferase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274069527417261032hypothetical proteinBLASTP
274180427436301827GTP-binding protein TypAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274427627459851710RNA-metabolizing metallo-beta-lactamase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27460332746485453FUR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27466072746861255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27468752747288414Holliday junction resolvase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27474952747746252hypothetical proteinBLASTP
274786127505002640alanyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275099627520241029hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27520372752525489PRC-barrel domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27527072753135429iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275313727543301194cysteine desulfuraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27543232754769447rrF2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275498927562391251recombination factor protein RarAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP