Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2654672 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
265467226557481077hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26559652656162198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
265630226577471446amino acid permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26579002658769870hypothetical proteinBLASTP
265929426603011008proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26603162660786471PrdE proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26608002661576777BLASTP
26627182662993276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
266300226651102109D-proline reductase subunit PrdAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26670922667754663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
266779426690981305electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26690972669213117hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26695302670057528hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26700622670541480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26706452670944300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26710182671446429PrdA domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
267147726727871311electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
267296326747171755sensory box sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
267505326762821230hypothetical proteinBLASTP
267634226775081167nucleoside recognition domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26775092678033525hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26780462678540495phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP