Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2635745 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
263574526368361092radical SAM domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26368292637533705ribonuclease IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26376582637891234acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
263796926389761008glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase PlsXQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2639066263924818350S ribosomal protein L32QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26392622639762501ribosomal protein L32 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
263988026410731194acetate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26412112642209999phosphotransacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26425432643421879hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26445372644812276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
264482126469352115D-proline reductase subunit PrdAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26492722650168897hypothetical proteinBLASTP
265047826524962019methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
265351826546031086hypothetical proteinBLASTP