Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2576500 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25765052576861357hypothetical proteinBLASTP
257685825781411284hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25781602579026867phosphoribose diphosphatedecaprenyl-phosphate phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25791892579449261stage V sporulation protein SQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257958825811291542phosphodiesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258136425824221059recombinase AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25825702583154585CDP-diacylglycerol--glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258313825844751338RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258457025868462277DNA translocase FtsKSpoIIIEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25873272588019693Clp proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258826725894721206aspartate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25894882589760273PRC-barrel domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258983725911381302M16 family peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
259131325934212109polynucleotide phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2593685259399931530S ribosomal protein S15QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25940812595001921bifunctional riboflavin kinaseFMN adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP