Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2552195 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
255079325522021410hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25521952552782588phage terminase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25530052553556552hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25535432553920378hypothetical proteinBLASTP
255392925552931365SNF2 domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25552962555463168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25554562555737282VRR-NUC domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25558922556032141hypothetical protein
255599825584212424virulence-associated protein EQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
255846825594931026hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25595372559821285hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25598602560090231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
256013925615691431C-5 cytosine-specific DNA methylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256161125635871977DNA-directed DNA polymerase IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25636082563787180hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25638182563988171hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25640702564624555hypothetical proteinBLASTP
256470225658471146hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25658472566011165hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25660112566457447hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25665032566757255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25667572567008252hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25670722567623552sigma-70 family RNA polymerase sigma factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25678282567986159hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25679832568834852hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25688962569039144hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25691272569330204DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25696222569999378DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257001125715611551resolvase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP