Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2287893 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228789322898481956tetracycline resistance proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
229036422931412778enhancing factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
229367622955471872cadmium-translocating P-type ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22957292296004276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22961272296417291microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22964922297142651propanediol utilization protein PduL-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
229714222987401599acetaldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22987752299659885carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism protein CcmK-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22996802300342663ethanolamine utilization protein EutQ-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23005322300795264polyhedral organelle formation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23007922301094303hypothetical proteinBLASTP
23011722302017846ethanolamine utilization protein EutJ family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23019992302715717hypothetical proteinBLASTP
23027222303168447EutPPduV family GTP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23031652303518354ethanolamine utilization protein EutS-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23035582304511954glycyl-radical enzyme activating family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
230469323072332541formate acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
230728323087761494aldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23088142309122309microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23091462309442297microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23095152309667153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
23097462310012267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
230999923111111113hypothetical proteinBLASTP