Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2142177 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21421772142803627NADPH-dependent FMN reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21439802144975996internalinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
214499721470842088carbohydrate binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
214740621494482043sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21498552150109255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21501222150490369endoribonuclease L-PSPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
215053221518031272sodiumdicarboxylate symporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
215184921530181170aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
215333221546241293hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21549642155959996internalinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
215598021581992220hypothetical proteinBLASTP
215840021598391440sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21598292160494666DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21608082161623816hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21616492162404756ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
216242021638531434ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP