Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2116500 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21168362117279444MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21173922117832441sperminespermidine acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21180612118744684molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MoeBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21187462118973228molybdopterin converting factor subunit 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
211925621210731818aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase tungsten-containingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21211672121298132hypothetical proteinBLASTP
212146721233621896aor transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21234122123852441MOSC domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21238542124333480molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MoaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21243372125296960molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
212535521272591905molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MoeALysR substrate binding-domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
212727121284971227molybdopterin biosynthesis enzyme MoeAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21285212129009489molybdopterin biosynthesis enzyme MogQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21292112129903693tungstate ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21299002130571672tungstate ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21305802131431852tungstate ABC transporter tungstate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
213165121329731323MATE efflux family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21329732133170198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21334122134056645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21343782135049672ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP