Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:2017329 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20173292017544216hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20175462017905360hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20179212018508588hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20185262018987462hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20189842019805822hypothetical proteinBLASTP
201981220209691158hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20209732021842870hypothetical proteinBLASTP
202185820253583501TP901 family phage tail tape measure proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20253752025554180hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20256142025958345hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20260202026607588phi13 family phage major tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20266892027045357hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20270562027415360HK97 family phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20274152027783369phage head-tail adaptorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20277732028066294phi-105 family phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
202815120293831233HK97 family phage major capsid proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20294352030178744Clp proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
203017120314031233HK97 family phage portal proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20314652031647183hypothetical proteinBLASTP
203167120334281758phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20334292033914486P27 family phage terminase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20340622034529468hypothetical proteinBLASTP
203462220364151794hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20364022036653252hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20366342037227594hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20372492037446198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20374762037721246hypothetical proteinBLASTP