Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:1698951 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
169895117011492199sensory box-containing diguanylate cyclaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17012571701604348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
170197217040442073methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17042511704718468MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17047441705286543hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17054351705788354transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17061831706548366glyoxalase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17065771707047471methylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170707417082911218AraC family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170845617096641209hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17096891710519831hypothetical proteinBLASTP
171090817120201113DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
171241117149452535hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17150021715871870cation efflux family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
171635717177601404amino acidpeptide transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17181971718556360iron-dependent repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17186541719061408hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17194421720296855HDIG domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
172076817234042637cation-transporting ATPase P-typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP