Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:1400000 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14001921400449258hypothetical proteinBLASTP
14007331401479747lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14017981402025228rubredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
140205714035171461glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14035571404498942thioredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14052701405647378GrdX proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
140573814070241287glycine reductase complex component B alpha and beta subunitsQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14085231409464942thioredoxin-disulfide reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14094981409818321thioredoxin family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141060514121431539glycine reductase complex component C subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141215914133251167glycine reductase complex component C subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141375214143636123-methyladenine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141442914166542226restriction endonuclease family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14169061417025120hypothetical proteinBLASTP
141709014183011212methylthioribose kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141844114194901050methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14195021419624123hypothetical proteinBLASTP
14196411420288648aldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14203321420472141hypothetical proteinBLASTP
14204621421256795DeoR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14215651421924360hypothetical proteinBLASTP