Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:1352211 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
135221113538391629beta-amylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
135459813558001203tyrosyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13560861356457372GntR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13564501357322873ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13573231358072750hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13582081358576369hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13589231359816894hypothetical proteinBLASTP
136000213643334332viral A-type inclusion repeat-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
136441113659251515glycosyl hydrolase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
136609913673581260sensory box-containing diguanylate cyclaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13673091367428120hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13677591368433675L-serine dehydratase iron-sulfur-dependent subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13684461369336891L-serine dehydratase iron-sulfur-dependent subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13697611369970210hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13701291370272144hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13703561370484129hypothetical protein
13705371371121585hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13714391372254816alphabeta hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13725671373535969dipeptidase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13739321374624693hypothetical proteinBLASTP