Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:122000 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
122117122755639zinc-dependent hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1231971263133117isoleucyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
126464127462999LacI family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1276781317304053hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1318051328721068mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferasemannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1332081345031296hypothetical proteinBLASTP
134508135314807hypothetical proteinBLASTP
135334136080747hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1363051376871383radical SAM domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1378741391481275sugar-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1392501403651116mannosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1405311415411011spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141556141750195hypothetical protein
141777142544768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1425571435701014spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1439241450511128glycoside hydrolase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP