Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:1122000 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11221051122488384response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
112260311250772475hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11255251125740216hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11257421126560819hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11265601127153594anaerobic ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase activating proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
112716711288401674ATPase AAAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11288551129625771hypothetical proteinBLASTP
113010311316261524L-lactate permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
113165511329291275hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11329721133760789electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
113379211349941203electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphaFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
113505511364521398glycolate oxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11367211136840120hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11369671137875909lipoproteinQuickGO ontology
11380711138541471MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11385431139088546cyclaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
113923911404231185aspartate aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11413721141950579cyclaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11421091142633525MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11429361143757822MerR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11439721144670699B34 domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP