Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:467500 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
468135468863729CobBCobQ family glutamine amidotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4689214702821362UDP-N-acetylmuramyl tripeptide synthetase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
470547471527981mannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4718764729911116lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
473099473953855undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
47600847608376tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4792734793891175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
47939847947275tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
479686480549864metallo-beta-lactamaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4806864814087231-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4821534835141362HMGL-related enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4836584855831926aconitate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
485619486617999isocitrateisopropylmalate family dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
486869487651783polar amino acid ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4881704899361767NaH antiporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
489963490178216hypothetical proteinBLASTP