Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:38000 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38110397351626DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tauQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3980040141342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4017440770597recombination protein RecRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4082741090264hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4124041500261sigma-K factor processing regulatory protein BofAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4165142343693sugar fermentation stimulation protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4239942887489NUDIX family hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4300543727723hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4386144649789Fe-S-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4466844829162hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4521245916705ThiF domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
45999471081110major facilitator superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4713748081945acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
53214533301175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
533375341276tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5363654232597uracil-DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
59853599691175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
599766005176tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6039460957564RNA polymerase factor sigma-70QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
60954623961443hypothetical proteinBLASTP
67718678341175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
678426791776tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6805868801744peptidil-prolyl isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
74053741691175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7454075283744NAD-dependent deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7546976377909LD-carboxypeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7641377354942CorA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP