Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3706154 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37061543706639486hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37067463707177432hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37073583708263906LysR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
370835137095471197subtilaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37095823710463882LysR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37104923711439948D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37116393712478840acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37125253713394870acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371341437147601347biotin carboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371479237152264353R-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37152463715722477acetyl-CoA carboxylase biotin carboxyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3715726371696412393-oxoacyl-ACP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371698437177307473-ketoacyl-ACP reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37177483718692945malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371871337196399272-nitropropane dioxygenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37197653719989225acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
372003037210109813-oxoacyl-ACP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37210033721479477MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3721495372255310592-nitropropane dioxygenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37226503723585936peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37237663724752987DNA replication protein DnaDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37247453725722978DNA replication protein DnaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3725813372588876tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3725893372596977tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3725979372605476tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3726204372628077tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3726288372636376tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3726462372653776tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3726542372661877tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3726628372670376tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37269683727777810hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37277903728164375CoA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
372834537295741230pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37296763730425750acyl-ACP thioesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37305283730713186hypothetical proteinBLASTP
373083937321251287adenylosuccinate synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373235737337421386pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37339083734123216hypothetical proteinBLASTP
373431637360371722phosphoglucomutasephosphomannomutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373627937376161338replicative DNA helicaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373764737395661920ATP-dependent proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3739577374002044450S ribosomal protein L9QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374002037420051986DHH family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374200637430101005hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37430223743339318hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3743487374372924330S ribosomal protein S18QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37437483744194447single-strand binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3744210374449428530S ribosomal protein S6QuickGO ontologyBLASTP