Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3647955 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3647955364803076tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3648035364812389tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36482653648669405hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36487313649000270cell division protein FtsLQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36490953649493399hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36495083649798291sporulation protein YabPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36499183650157240S4 domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36502313650509279DNA-binding protein HUQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
365063736520821446MazG family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
365209736536321536stage V sporulation protein BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36537653654316552stage V sporulation protein TQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
365451536555251011peptidyl-prolyl isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
365560936591153507transcription-repair coupling factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36591433659712570peptidyl-tRNA hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
365982236609941173proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
366102936624381410sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36624393663125687DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36633053664264960ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
366428536656581374bifunctional N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferaseglucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36658203666107288regulatory protein SpoVGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36662103667025816pur operon repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
366722536686011377UDP-N-acetylmuramate--L-alanine ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36686663668974309hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3669052366912776tRNA-ProQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
366922036705691350Fe hydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP