Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3553365 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355336535553742010sensory box sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35555113556218708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35562883556842555tartratefumarate subfamily Fe-S type hydro-lyase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35569433557785843fumarate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35579263558630705N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355889635605121617NaPi-cotransporter family proteinPhoU family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3560818356121039330S ribosomal protein S9QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3561236356167043550S ribosomal protein L13QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35617943562534741tRNA pseudouridine synthase AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35625343563337804cobalt ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35633343564200867cobalt transporter ATP-binding subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35641853565033849cobalt transporter ATP-binding subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3565124356546534250S ribosomal protein L17QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35655093566456948DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3566524356714462130S ribosomal protein S4QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3567179356757739930S ribosomal protein S11QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3567595356796637230S ribosomal protein S13QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3568079356819211450S ribosomal protein L36QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35682093568427219translation initiation factor IF-1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35684353568716282hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35687313569480750methionine aminopeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35694803570130651adenylate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
357015435714311278preprotein translocase subunit SecYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3571432357187244150S ribosomal protein L15QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3571892357207118050S ribosomal protein L30QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3572085357258249830S ribosomal protein S5QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3572600357295936050S ribosomal protein L18QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3572978357352054350S ribosomal protein L6QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3573544357394239930S ribosomal protein S8QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3573972357415718630S ribosomal protein S14QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3574174357471654350S ribosomal protein L5QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3574739357505631850S ribosomal protein L24QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3575080357544836950S ribosomal protein L14QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3575483357573725530S ribosomal protein S17QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3575759357597121350S ribosomal protein L29QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3575961357640444450S ribosomal protein L16QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3576422357709367230S ribosomal protein S3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3577111357744633650S ribosomal protein L22QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3577468357775228530S ribosomal protein S19QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3577822357865583450S ribosomal protein L2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3578710357900329450S ribosomal protein L23QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3579003357962362150S ribosomal protein L4QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3579648358027763050S ribosomal protein L3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3580367358067530930S ribosomal protein S10QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358107235822651194elongation factor TuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358230535843742070elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3584440358491047130S ribosomal protein S7QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3585071358544837830S ribosomal protein S12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35855243585763240ribosomal protein L7Ae family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358588835894243537DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358944535931433699DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3593408359377937250S ribosomal protein L7L12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3593826359432650150S ribosomal protein L10QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3594528359521769050S ribosomal protein L1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3595274359569942650S ribosomal protein L11QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35957703596294525transcription antitermination protein NusGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35963413596568228preprotein translocase subunit SecEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3596618359676715050S ribosomal protein L33QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359696935981621194elongation factor TuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3598245359832076tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35984783599119642RNA polymerase factor sigma-70QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35991933599702510hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35997053600478774RNA methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP