Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3526359 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35263593527036678transaldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35270553527702648haloacid dehalogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35277263528511786sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35285313528896366PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IIAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
352911235301161005PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IIBCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35301293530674546PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IICQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35307173531112396glucitol operon activator proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
353112635321751050L-iditol 2-dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35322103533181972glucitol operon regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
353353635348851350phosphoglucosamine mutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
353502035355505312-oxoglutarate ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit gammaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
353555235363017502-oxoglutarate oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3536301353737110712-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
353738735375962102-oxoacidacceptor oxidoreductase subunit deltaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35376983538360663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
353862335396931071butyrate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35397223540633912phosphate butyryltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354062635417201095butyrate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354182135434191599oxidoreductase FAD-bindingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354342135447011281hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35446713545519849hypothetical proteinBLASTP