Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3359766 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
336084333618471005D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33620343363029996D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
336384333650211179hypothetical proteinBLASTP
336523933664351197electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphaFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33664533367247795electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
336726033683931134acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
336856033696841125R-phenyllactate dehydratase subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
336968633709091224R-phenyllactate dehydratase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33709143371708795R-phenyllactate dehydratase activatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
337170833729461239E-cinnamoyl-CoAR-phenyllactate CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
337300033746311632AMP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
337509733764191323branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
337687833784101533GMP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
337842333798771455inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33803173381066750PP-loop family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
338114533827701626molecular chaperone GroELQuickGO ontologyBLASTP