Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3275839 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
327476132758581098R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32758393276813975CoA-substrate-specific enzyme activaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
327688232785101629sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
327886832798751008electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphaFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32798883280667780electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
328067932818181140butyryl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
328201232831901179acetyl-CoA acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
328321532840458313-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
328407632848587833-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32852743285492219hypothetical proteinBLASTP
328553632866331098GIY-YIG domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
328690932882011293xanthineuracil permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32886033289499897HDIG domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32895673289719153hypothetical protein
32898843290003120hypothetical protein
32901053290869765prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32910783291542465phosphodiesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32915853291950366hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32920813292836756glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
329293232949382007methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP