Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3211131 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
321113132130381908threonyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32133863214285900hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32144403215147708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
321535532169261572ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32169283217623696ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3218229321830476tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3218308321838477tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3218390321846576tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32185303219420891Hsp33-like chaperoninQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32194583220198741hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32202843220556273small acid-soluble spore proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32208553221814960oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322181432228331020oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32228473223764918oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32237803224709930oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322479032264721683oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter oligopeptidedipeptide-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32269573227949993aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32279723228850879dihydrodipicolinate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32290733229828756dihydrodipicolinate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
323036832315371170aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP