Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3185359 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3185359318589553750S ribosomal protein L25QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
318610231875621461OrnLysArg decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31877473188580834hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31887783189680903phosphate acetylbutyryl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319012431911371014dehydrogenase FMN-dependentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31913733191843471hypothetical proteinBLASTP
319203131943972367recombination and DNA strand exchange inhibitor proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319453031968962367U32 family peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31974703198348879hypothetical proteinBLASTP
319855432003801827hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32005513200703153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32008833201149267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32020003202590591hypothetical proteinBLASTP
320279532051762382phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP