Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3046833 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
304683330481071275cell envelope-related function transcriptional attenuatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30481183048687570HDIG domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30487703049375606nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30496183049911294RNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
304993830512121275GTPase ObgEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3051591305189330350S ribosomal protein L27QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30518963052222327hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3052225305253931550S ribosomal protein L21QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
305266330541021440ribonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30542603054973714hypothetical proteinBLASTP
305495130568011851radical SAM domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30569143057765852metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30578203058605786M24M37 family peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
305892530600431119rod shape-determining protein RodAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30601423060405264cell division topological specificity factor MinEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30604193061216798septum site-determining protein MinDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30612343061863630septum formation inhibitorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
306203830648122775penicillin-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30648323065323492rod shape-determining protein MreDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30653343066179846rod shape-determining protein MreCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP