Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3006500 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30067323007622891GTP-binding protein EraQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30076383008036399cytidine deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30081203008818699diacylglycerol kinasePAP2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30088573009357501metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
300935430114412088hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301146430126241161stage IV sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30126143012910297sporulation protein YqfCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30130243013470447GatBYqey domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3013513301368917730S ribosomal protein S21QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30138263014170345HIT family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301422730155251299RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3015525301628375916S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase RsmEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3016381301731993950S ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301749730186421146molecular chaperone DnaJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301878530206561872molecular chaperone DnaKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30207113021355645heat shock protein GrpEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
302138230224131032heat-inducible transcription repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
302261430237561143coproporphyrinogen III oxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
302378330255911809GTP-binding protein LepAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP