Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2921097 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
292109729237422646magnesium-translocating P-type ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29244852924889405hypothetical proteinBLASTP
292521729264581242phosphoribosylamine--glycine ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
292660729281061500bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferaseIMP cyclohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29283202928937618phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29290652930060996phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
293012129315691449amidophosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29316612932365705phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29323652932844480phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase catalytic subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29333652933499135hypothetical proteinBLASTP
293352029360752556xanthine dehydrogenase molybdopterin-binding subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
293645029376671218peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
293769329390211329chlorohydrolaseaminohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
293905229420693018selenate reductase subunit YgfKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
294210529433011197aspartateornithine carbamoyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP