Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2727203 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
272720327286241422glycosyl transferase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27286332728980348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
272898427306871704hypothetical proteinBLASTP
273071227326131902glycosyl transferase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27328362733663828flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27338772734704828flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27348542735195342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
273522227376572436flagellar hook-associated protein 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27377112738100390flagellar protein FliSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27381372738436300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27384912738847357flagellar protein FlaGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27388632739081219carbon storage regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27390812739512432flagellar assembly protein FliWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27396012740563963flagellar hook-associated protein 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274058127424491869flagellar hook-associated protein FlgKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27427382743142405flgN family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27431422743423282regulator of flagellin synthesis FlgMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274392027450801161flagellar motor switch proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27450732746068996flagellar motor switch protein FliMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27460962746491396chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27465912746950360chemotaxis protein CheYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27469782747577600chemotaxis protein CheCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274760327496782076chemotaxis protein CheAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27496912750461771chemotaxis protein CheRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275047627515401065protein-glutamate methylesterase CheBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27515632752051489chemoreceptor glutamine deamidase CheDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27520682752514447chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP