Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2649453 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
264945326512821830bifunctional flagellar biosynthesis protein FliRFlhBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26513162651585270flagellar biosynthesis protein FliQQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26515972652373777flagellar biosynthesis protein FliPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26523572652764408flagellar biosynthesis domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26533542654097744chemotaxis protein MotBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26540902654902813chemotaxis protein MotAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26548992655108210flagellar protein FlbDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
265534226563791038flagellar hook protein flgEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26564612656880420flagellar operon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26568952657692798flagellar hook capping proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
265772226591101389flagellar hook-length control proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26591162659553438flagellar protein FliJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
265965726609731317flagellar protein export ATPase FliIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26610132661789777flagellar assembly protein FliHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
266177326627861014flagellar motor switch protein GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
266279326643731581flagellar MS-ring proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26643892664703315flagellar hook-basal body protein FliEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26647152665149435flagellar basal body rod protein FlgCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26652472665648402flagellar basal-body rod protein FlgBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26662202667074855flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26672182667586369hypothetical proteinBLASTP
266812626694481323argininosuccinate lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP