Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2450606 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
245060624516821077hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24518992452096198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
245223724536821446amino acid permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24538352454704870hypothetical proteinBLASTP
245522924562361008proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24562502456720471PrdE proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24567342457510777PrdD proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24586522458927276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
245893624610472112D-proline reductase subunit PrdAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24610722461248177hypothetical proteinBLASTP
246127024623881119NADH dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24630292463691663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
246373124650351305electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24656282466155528permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24661602466639480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24667432467042300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24671152467543429PrdA domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
246757424688841311electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
246906024708141755sensory box sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
247115024723791230hypothetical proteinBLASTP